Culture, God and Goddess

Thinking like a Pagan Celt

All images: Public domain

In some of the earlier posts we began an exploration of key questions like ‘What is a Celt?’ and ‘How do we know what we think we know?’ No doubt we will return to these themes as we go along, but for now, let’s delve into some primal thinking about what it may have meant to ‘be living as’ a Pagan Celt, and how that world view is relevant in this day and age.

From the evidence of archaeology and native writing, it is clear that for many (if not all) of the ancient Celts, their religion was polytheistic (having many gods and goddesses) and probably also animistic (perceiving the living presence of the divine in the natural world). This cultural tradition is important to keep in mind if people are promoting divergent views, such as claiming the Celts worshipped ‘The Goddess’ (a resonant but quite modern path) or the Wiccan ‘Lord and Lady.’ (ditto)

france-77296_640Some of the gods and goddesses (or their related culturally relevant archetypes) may have been fairly widespread. For example, the Continental god Lugus / Lugos sees a reflex in the Irish god Lug(h) and the Welsh figure Lleu Llaw Gyffes. It is possible (but not certain) that the British goddess Brigantia (whose name means ‘Exalted One’) may be related to the Irish goddess Bríg (later known as Brigid). Possibly the most well known and attested are the Horse / Sovereignty goddesses, such as the widely venerated Continental deity Epona (‘Divine Horse Goddess’), the Irish Mórrigan and Macha, and the Welsh Rhiannon (as well as the legendary Medb and other figures from myth and folklore).

There would also be local deities associated with the landscape – like the Irish goddess Boand (tutelary deity of the River Boyne) and Sinann (the River Shannon), and many other river goddesses throughout the Celtic world (Sabrina – the Severn, Tawa – the Tay, etc.) The perception of river goddesses was very far reaching in Celtic territories, and some rivers were simply called ‘Goddess’ (Dea, as in the several rivers named Dee) or ‘Divine Goddess’ (Dewona) as in the rivers called Don.

So, to place ourselves in this mindset, we envision ourselves inhabiting a world that is also inhabited by other beings, not usually visible to the naked eye. As animists, the visible world would be ‘full of spirit’ – in every rock, tree, plant, stone, etc. This, in and of itself, is a powerful first step to ‘stepping out of our modern mindset’ and placing ourselves into the web of life. Here we see ourselves not as the center of the universe, but as part of a sacred network of relationships. How does that change our daily experience? How does it inform the decisions we make, and how we view our lives?

One could sit in silent contemplation for quite some time, meditating upon this concept and coming to important realizations about ourselves and the world we live in. Then, add to that the presence of tribal deities, multi-skilled and multi-aspected deities of culture and ancestry, whose Otherworld realms are accessed through sacred burial mounds, sacred groves, hills and mountaintops, and bodies of water. Our modern feeling of disconnection and isolation vanishes once we realize we are surrounded by the Divine, and – if we can shift our perceptions and understanding – in constant contact with it.

spain-2263371_640Can we allow this to ‘be enough’? Can we learn to let it fill and nourish us, so that we can let go of non-essential and sometimes unhealthy habits and obsessions (food, drugs, technology, power, consumerism)? This is part of the indigenous world view in many cultures, and explains why for many people in Western culture, no matter how much we eat, drink, watch or buy, we still feel empty.

Take some time each day to contemplate the presence of Spirit around you, and the ever-living presence of the Gods and Goddesses. Open yourself as a Sacred Vessel and let that energy fill you, nourish you, heal you, and illuminate a sacred path in which you think – and feel – like a Pagan Celt. This is no fantasy or ‘running away from reality.’ This is the legacy that the ancestors have left for us, and which can create new, sacred connections and changes in our lives, once we can see the gift.

Sharon’s much anticipated book, entitled Celtic Cosmology and The Otherworld is currently on back-order at McFarland Publishers. Check it out here!


“Despite censorship and revision by Christian redactors, the early medieval manuscripts of Ireland and Britain contain tantalizing clues to the cosmology, religion and mythology of native Celtic cultures. Focusing on the latest research and translations, the author provides fresh insight into the indigenous beliefs and practices of the Iron Age inhabitants of the British Isles. Chapters cover a broad range of topics, including creation and cosmogony, the deities of the Gaels, feminine power in early Irish sources, and priestesses and magical rites.”

Sharon’s other publications: 978-0-7864-6476-0.jpg

Celtic Myth and Religion: A Study of Traditional Belief (McFarland)

The Divine Feminine in Ancient Europe: Goddesses, Sacred Women and the Origins of Western Culture (McFarland)

Queen of the Night: Rediscovering the Celtic Moon Goddess (Red Wheel / Weiser)

Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium (see also Harvard University Press website) 

The Moors (CD Baby / Itunes – Collector’s copies / Digital downloads)

Sharon Paice MacLeod

Writer, Teacher, Musician


Sharon is a professional scholar trained in Celtic Studies through Harvard University. She has taught at the university level, and published and presented academic work in North America and Europe. Her areas of expertise include Celtic and early European religious practices, indigenous studies, shamanism, and women’s roles in Celtic and other northern European cultures.

1 thought on “Thinking like a Pagan Celt”

  1. Reblogged this on screamlol64 and commented:
    Take some time each day to contemplate the presence of Spirit around you, and the ever-living presence of the Gods and Goddesses. Open yourself as a Sacred Vessel and let that energy fill you, nourish you, heal you, and illuminate a sacred path in which you think – and feel – like a Pagan Celt.


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